A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

BuddhaNet | Glossary of Buddhist Terms BuddhaNet is a not-for-profit organization affiliated with the Buddha Dharma Education Association. BDEA has evolved as a Buddhist Information and Education Service.

Chicago Author-Date Citation Machine Generates Chicago style, author-date citations for books; journal, newspaper, and magazine articles; websites. In accordance with Maitripa Style Guide.

Chicago Manual of Style : Author-Date Citation Samples The preferred citation style in the Maitripa College Style Guide. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding in-text citation.

Gale Virtual Reference Library For offsite access/password, contact or log in to Populi for access through Links.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a subset of Google Web Search that enables you to search specifically for scholarly literature, including papers, theses, books, and reports.

IEP: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy The IEP was founded in 1995 to provide open access to detailed, scholarly information on key topics and philosophers in all areas of philosophy. The Encyclopedia is free of charge and available to all users of the Internet world-wide. The staff of 30 editors and approximately 300 authors hold doctorate degrees and are professors at universities around the world, most notably from English-speaking countries.

Indica et Buddhica (PDF) The current listing of more than 650 journals containing Buddhist Studies material.

LYWA | Glossary of Buddhist Terms The glossary includes English, Sanskrit and Tibetan terms.

Maitripa College Course Texts Archive Compilation of all texts assigned for course booklists. (Populi login required) 

Multnomah County Library | Classic Catalog

Multnomah County Library | Resources for Research Access via your MCL library card barcode and PIN.

Oregon Passport Program Participating libraries with reciprocal borrowing privileges with Maitripa College Library.

Sacred Texts | Buddhism Large collection of online texts and articles.

Timelines of Buddhist History These timelines sketch significant events and personalities in the evolution of Buddhism.

Treasury of Lives The Treasury of Lives is a biographical encyclopedia of Tibet, Inner Asia, and the Himalayan region. Founded in 2007 as a project of the Rubin Foundation, the Treasury provides an accessible and well-researched biography of a wide range of figures, from Buddhist masters to artists and political officials, many of which are peer reviewed.

WorldCat WorldCat connects you to the collections and services of more than 10,000 libraries worldwide. You can search for popular books, music CDs and videos—all of the physical items you’re used to getting from libraries. lets you find an item of interest and then locate a library near you that owns it. Usually you will link directly to the item record on the library’s Web site.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices In 1,800 pages across 3 volumes, Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices provides information on current religious practices around the world with an emphasis on how religions impact the daily lives of their followers.
via Gale Virtual Reference Library, contact for password for offsite access

Tibetan Language

84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha A global non-profit initiative to translate all of the Buddha’s words into modern languages, and to make them available to everyone. 84000 was officially launched in 2010 as a project under Khyentse Foundation to set up the operating system to achieve its mission:

To translate and publish the Kangyur within 25 years (70,000 pages); and
To translate and publish the Tengyur within 100 years (161,800 pages)

Adarsha ADARSHA is an app that lets you read and conduct searches of ancient documents in a digital format. There are three main categories of texts: (a) Kangyur (the words of the Buddha translated into Tibetan) ; (b) Tengyur (commentaries by Indian scholars translated into Tibetan) ; and (c) Tibetan Buddhist scriptures.

Asian Classics Input Project  ACIP is dedicated to locating, cataloging, digitally preserving, and freely distributing rare and precious collections of ancient wisdom. More than two million pages have been digitally preserved and tens of thousands of pages of searchable e-books and catalogs are distributed to the public free of charge.

Buddhist Canons Research Database A project of the American Institute of Buddhist Studies (AIBS) and the Columbia University Center for Buddhist Studies (CCBS). The Buddhist Canons Research Database is a resource that offers complete bibliographic information (with internal crosslinks and links to external resources) for the roughly 5,000 texts contained in the Tibetan Buddhist canon, and offers both general and targeted full text search access to those texts (approximately 15 million syllables).

Buddhist Digital Resource Center / Internet Archive Buddhist Digital Resource Center (formerly Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center) is dedicated to preserving and sharing Buddhist texts through the union of technology and scholarship

The Dharma Farm – Teaching Classical Tibetan  for translators. Central to the Dharma Farm approach to language instruction is a core emphasis on a correct understanding of the grammar of literary Tibetan.  Consequently, the foundation of our courses is a rigorous primer in grammatical principles and sentence paradigm memorization.

Learning Tibetan! / བོད་སྐད་སྦྱང་ཨ་   Resources for learning classical and colloquial Tibetan Language by Maitripa College student Andrew Hughes.

Rangjung Yeshe Wiki : Dharma Dictionary Tibetan-English Dictionary, Dharma Glossaries, and Resources

Tibetan & Himalayan Library | Dictionary The THL Tibetan Dictionary is created and maintained by a broad array of scholars rather than by professional editors, such that entries reflect a rich dialog on the meaning and history of terms. It allows for charting the historical usage of terms, as well as their contemporary spoken usage via recordings. It is in fact many dictionaries in one.

Tibetan & Himalayan Library | Translation Tool

Tibetan Consonants and their Sounds Spoken by Ge-she Ge-lek-cho-dak

Tibetan-English Dictionary This application contains dictionaries and glossary by the following authors: Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terms; Buddhist Terms; The Uma Institute for Tibetan Studies Tibetan-Sanskrit-English Dictionary; Common Chinese-Tibetan-Sanskrit-English Buddhist Terminology; Rangjung Yeshe Dictionary; Dr. Alexander Berzin’s English-Tibetan-Sanskrit Glossary; Thomas Doctor’s Tibetan-English Terms; James Valby’s Tibetan-English Dictionary; Ives Waldo’s glossary compilation; Dan Martin: “Tibetan Vocabulary”; Richard Barron’s Glossary; Glossary for Mipham Rinpoche’s Gateway to Knowledge, Vol. 1; Tibetan Computer Terms; ‘Verbinator’ Tibetan Verb Dictionary; Sera Textbook Definitions (Tibetan); Dung dkar tshig mdzod chen mo; Dag yig gsar bsgrigs; Mahavyutpatti; Tibetan-Sanskrit Table of Buddhist Terminology Based on the Yogacarabhumi

Tibetan Language Institute TLI offers a bridge to the ancient wisdom traditions of Tibet as well as the contemporary Tibetans. Our Institute presents classes, seminars, workshops, and public lectures on Tibetan language, culture, literature, and philosophy (this includes on-going programs of study of Tibetan texts, conversational Tibetan, calligraphy, and lectures by guest speakers). The Institute strives to enhance the language learning possibilities of students of all backgrounds, from academicians and to ordinary people from all around the world.

Tsadra Translation & Transmission : Useful Resources This is a selection of links to resources relevant to the themes and topics of the Translation and Transmission Conference series.

UMA Institute for Tibetan Studies Founded by Jeffrey Hopkins and dedicated to translation into English and other languages of texts from Tibetan Buddhist traditions seminars, classes, and retreats on focal topics of Tibetan Buddhism and instruction in the literary and colloquial aspects of the Tibetan language and maintenance and development of multimedia archives as research and instructional resources accessible across the Worldwide Web

Sanskrit Club


Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries Sanskrit lexicons prepared since 1994 by the Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies, Cologne University.

Devanagari Writing Tutor Click on a letter to see how it’s written.

Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon University of the West is engaged in a ground-breaking project to gather, digitize and distribute the original Sanskrit scriptures of the Buddhist faith. The Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon (DSBC) is an ambitious project to preserve the original intellectual and spiritual heritage of Buddhism through digitization and organization of these texts into a complete and comprehensive Sanskrit Buddhist Canon that may be freely accessed online. – Grammar Guide The heart of the site is the grammar guide, which has been under slow but steady development for a few years. Featuring thousands of exercises, more than one hundred lessons, and dozens of images and audio clips, the guide presents Sanskrit grammar in a fresh way without sacrificing clarity, depth, or its enthusiastic spirit!

UBC Sanskrit – Learning Tools This site is developed and maintained by faculty and graduate students in the Department of Asian Studies at the University of British Columbia.


Information Literacy

For Faculty

Community of Online Research Assignments CORA : an open access resource for faculty and librarians.

Handouts, Worksheets, and Activities for Information Literacy Indiana University Bloomington Libraries

Project Information Literacy Project Information Literacy (PIL) is a nonprofit research institute that conducts ongoing, national studies on what it is like being a student in the digital age.

Research Assignment Design Research assignments often confuse students who have limited experience using sources in scholarly contexts. The ideas offered here come largely from librarians’ experiences supporting students in the research process. 
(Indiana University Libraries)

Research Assignment Design Checklist Use the checklist to help design and evaluate a research assignment.

Research Assignment Handouts_Suggested Additions Suggested ways to incorporate “Checklist for the Design of Effective Research Assignments” items into research assignments.

For Students

Develop a Thesis
Indiana University Bloomington Libraries

The Big Picture – videos and interactive guides
NC State University Libraries

Evaluating Internet Resources
Ask yourself these questions before using resources from the World Wide Web. (Georgetown University Library)

Evaluating Sources (UC Berkeley)
The questions on this page should help you explain why a particular source is a good fit for your research project.

Evaluating Sources Rhetorically
How you evaluate a source depends on the purpose of your research. Consider how the given source might inform your research and if it provides the most appropriate information for your purpose.

Evaluating Wikipedia
Tracing the Evolution and Evaluating the Quality of Articles

From Topic to Research Question
After choosing a topic and gathering background information, add focus with a research question.

Know Your Sources
A guide to understanding sources. (PCC)

Reading Scholarly Articles : Joining the Conversation
Strategies to help you read and use scholarly materials effectively. You may find that many academic texts offer meaningful ways to explore your and others’ ideas and perspectives.

Understanding Assignments (UNC Chapel Hill)
Why did your instructor ask you to do this particular task?
Who is your audience?
What kind of evidence do you need to support your ideas?
What kind of writing style is acceptable?
What are the absolute rules of the paper?

The Writing Center Tips & Tools
The UNC CHapel Hill Writing Center helps students become stronger, more flexible writers.

The Writing Center – Religious Studies
This handout explains several common writing assignments in religious studies and discusses what is unique about writing in this discipline. (UNC Chapel Hill)

Resources for Research

Access to Insight
Access to Insight is dedicated to providing accurate, reliable, and useful information concerning the practice and study of Theravada Buddhism, as it has been handed down to us through both the written word of the Pali canon and the living example of the Sangha.

American Institute of Buddhist Studies at Columbia University
The American Institute of Buddhist Studies was founded in 1972 — at the request of H.H. the Dalai Lama and the late Ven. Geshe Ngawang Wangyal — with the ambitious mandate to translate and publish the originally Indian Buddhist artistic, scientific, and religious works collected in the Tibetan Tengyur (bstan ‘gyur).

Buddhist Studies WWW Virtual Library
The Internet Guide to Buddhism and Buddhist Studies. This site keeps track of leading information facilities in the fields of Buddhism and Buddhist studies.

Columbia University Research Guide for Modern Tibetan Studies
This guide began as an extensive syllabus compiled by Professor Gray Tuttle for his “Sources for Modern Tibetan History” seminar. It is exceptionally strong in its survey of resources for historical research.

Digital Tibetan Debate
Terms, definitions and interactive pages for students of Tibetan logic and debate.

Dunhuang Research Academy
Dunhuang Research Academy (DHRA) is a national comprehensive institution responsible for the conservation, management and research of the Grottoes at Dunhuang. The cave art in Dunhuang and manuscripts found in the Library Cave provide the world with rich resources for studying religion, history, geography, politics, economics, art, literature, technology, folk customs, costumes, and astronomy of China and Central Asia. It became a fashionable topic called Dunhuang Studies.

E-Asia Digital Library
University of Oregon Librarian Asian Collection. By building a collection of digitized e-books and a database of full text web resources, e-Asia strives to contribute to the research and scholarship of East Asia.

Engaging Digital Tibet
Engaging Digital Tibet was created to enhance the teaching and learning of Tibetan material history. The site contains an advanced, searchable repository of Tibetan objects, as well as unique features for creating and sharing descriptive annotations about the objects and their significant parts, allowing for a collaborative decoding and description of Tibetan culture itself.

FPMT Online Learning Center

  • Introductory Programs
  • Discovering Buddhism
  • Living in the Path
  • Basic Program Online
  • Special Commentary and Other Teachings

FPMT | Rinpoche Available Now
Latest teachings of Lama Zopa Rinpoche teachings.

H-Buddhism serves as a medium for the exchange of information regarding academic resources, new research projects, scholarly publications, university job listings, and so forth, for specialists in Buddhist Studies who are currently affiliated with academic institutions.

H-Buddhism Bibliography Project | Group Library
A comprehensive, open, online bibliography for the field of Buddhist studies, managed by H-Buddhism, the online network of scholars of Buddhism

HathiTrust is a partnership of academic & research institutions, offering a collection of millions of titles digitized from libraries around the world.

Himalayan Art Resources
The mission of the Himalayan Art Resources website (HAR) is to create a comprehensive education and research database and virtual museum of Himalayan art:

JABL | LibBib Collections
Browsable, to-be-cataloged collections donated to Maitripa College. These books may circulate by request.

Library of Tibetan Works & Archives

Maitripa College You Tube Channel
A rich collection of recordings from past events in Maitripa’s Jokhang Hall, and the three-day Dalai Lama Environmental Summit.

Oregon Digital Library Consortium
Sign in with your local public library card to borrow ebooks and audiobooks.

PhilArchive is the largest open access e-print archive in philosophy. Formerly known as the PhilPapers Archive, it is built on and integrated with the PhilPapers database. Access to items on PhilArchive is free without a user account. PhilArchive is a non-profit project supported by the PhilPapers Foundation. PhilArchive consists entirely of articles submitted by users. You can contribute by submitting your work. There are currently 30,320 works in the archive. These works fall under 5,395 topics.

The Pluralism Project | Harvard University
The Pluralism Project is a two decade-long research project that engages students in studying the new religious diversity in the United States. We explore particularly the communities and religious traditions of Asia and the Middle East that have become woven into the religious fabric of the United States in the past twenty-five years.

Religious Studies News
The web magazine of the American Academy of Religion and is designed as a platform for students and professionals in the field to report on research trends, issues in religious studies and higher education, and apply the academic study of religion to broader public conversations.

Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center
TBRC Library contains more than 9,615 works (25,115 volumes totaling over ten million digital pages), making this online repository the most extensive collection of Tibetan literature that has ever existed in one place.

Timelines of Buddhist History
These timelines sketch significant events and personalities in the evolution of Buddhism.

Buddhist Publications

Journals fully or significantly publishing articles about or related to Buddhism

Asian Philosophy
An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East

Buddhist-Christian Studies (JSTOR)
Buddhist-Christian Studies is a scholarly journal devoted to Buddhism and Christianity and their historical and contemporary interrelationships. The journal presents thoughtful articles, conference reports, and book reviews and includes sections on comparative methodology and historical comparisons, as well as ongoing discussions from two dialogue conferences: the Theological Encounter with Buddhism, and the Japan Society for Buddhist-Christian Studies.

Buddhist Studies Review
Journal of the UK Association of Buddhist Studies

Canadian Journal of Buddhist Studies (access via MCL Academic Search Premier)
A scholarly peer-reviewed, open access, online publication covering all aspects of Buddhist Studies

Comparative and Continental Philosophy
Sponsored by the Comparative and Continental Philosophy Circle, Comparative and Continental Philosophy is a seriously minded, yet interesting, academic journal that is accessible to a wide range of readers from various disciplines such as philosophy, religion, art history, comparative literature, critical theory, phenomenological psychology, and cultural theory.

Comparative Philosophy
Comparative Philosophy is a peer-reviewed, open-access/non-profit international journal of philosophy, with emphasis on the constructive engagement of distinct approaches to philosophical issues, problems, themes from different philosophical traditions (whether distinguished culturally or by style/orientation) for the sake of their joint contribution to the common philosophical enterprise and the development of contemporary society, and on general theory and methodology of comparative philosophy.

Contemporary Buddhism (access via MCL Academic Search Premier)
Contemporary Buddhism examines the historical, doctrinal, literary, social, political, developments that have formed contemporary versions of Buddhism, East and West.

The Eastern Buddhist
The Eastern Buddhist carries articles on all aspects of Buddhism as well as English translations of classical Buddhist texts and works by modern Buddhist thinkers.

Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies
Founded in 1936, HJAS has without interruption pursued its mission to disseminate original, outstanding research and book reviews on the humanities in Asia,

History of Religion (JSTOR)
The first academic journal devoted exclusively to comparative religious history, History of Religions has set the standard for the study of religious phenomena from prehistory to modern times.

History of Religion (current issues)
Current issues are now on the Chicago Journals website. Read the latest issue.

Indian International Journal of Buddhist Studies (IIJBS)
This journal is in continuation of the Institute’s earlier periodical The Indian Journal of Buddhist Studies (IJBS) Vols. I to X (1989-1998) and is published as new series starting from 1999-2000 annually every summer (May-June). It accepts scholarly contributions in Hindi and English, pertaining to Buddhist Studies in various disciplines such as anthropology, archaeology, art, history, philology, philosophy, politics, psychology, sociology etc. as well as those dealing with texts and translations. It will include reviews, notices and bibliographical information.

International Journal for Philosophy of Religion
The International Journal for Philosophy of Religion (IJPR) provides a medium for the exposition, development, and criticism of important philosophical insights and theories relevant to religion in any of its varied forms. It also provides a forum for critical, constructive, and interpretative consideration of religion from an objective philosophical point of view.

Japanese Journal of Religious Studies
The Japanese Journal of Religious Studies is a semi-annual journal dedicated to the academic study of Japanese religions, seeking to deepen understanding of Japanese religions.

Journal for the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies
Published by the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies – A Recognised Independent Centre of the University of Oxford.

Journal of Asian Studies
This quarterly has been published regularly since November 1941. Each issue contains four to five feature articles on topics involving the history, arts, social sciences, philosophy, and contemporary issues of East, South, and Southeast Asia, as well as a large book review section.

Journal of Buddhist Ethics (also available via Gale Academic OneFile)
The Journal of Buddhist Ethics is the first academic journal dedicated entirely to Buddhist ethics. We promote the study of Buddhist ethics through the publication of research and book reviews and by hosting occasional online conferences. Our subject matter includes:

  • Vinaya and Jurisprudence
  • Medical Ethics
  • Philosophical Ethics
  • Human Rights
  • Ethics and Psychology
  • Ecology and the Environment
  • Social and Political Philosophy
  • Cross-cultural Ethics
  • Ethics and Anthropology
  • Interfaith Dialogue on Ethics

Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies (JCBS) is a scholarly journal dedicated to the historical study of Chinese Buddhism in the premodern and modern periods. It seeks to promote the academic study, and teaching, of all aspects of Buddhist thought, practice, social, and institutional life in China, including historical interactions with Buddhist developments in South, East, and Central Asia. The JCBS publishes annually, and meets in conjunction with the American Academy of Religion.

Journal of Chinese Philosophy
The Journal of Chinese Philosophy is devoted to the scholarly and creative study of Chinese philosophy and thought in all phases and stages of articulation and development.

Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion (Access via MCL Academic Search Premier)
Inter-religious feminist academic journal in religious studies; is a channel for the publication of feminist scholarship in religion and a forum for discussion and dialogue among women and men of differing feminist perspectives.

Journal of Global Buddhism (also available via Gale Academic OneFile)
The Journal of Global Buddhism has been established to promote the study of the globalization of Buddhism, both historical and contemporary, and its transnational and transcontinental interrelatedness. Research articles, special issues (special focus sections), discussions, critical notes, review essays and book reviews.

Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies
Published by Japanese Association of Indian and Buddhist Studies

Journal of the American Academy of Religions
JAAR is generally considered to be the top academic journal in the field of religious studies. This international quarterly journal publishes top scholarly articles that cover the full range of world religious traditions together with provocative studies of the methodologies by which these traditions are explored. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section.

The Journal of the American Oriental Society
A refereed, scholarly journal covering the language, literature, culture, and history of the Near East, North Africa, South, and Southeast Asia, Inner Asia, the Far East, and the Islamic world. Topics addressed include philosophy, religion, folklore, and art.

Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies
This website offers full access to the JIABS. Current issues will be available online 36 months after their appearance in print.

JIABS subscription access
Current journal access.

Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies
JIATS Archive. All issues available to read and download in part or in full. Not searchable.

Journal of the Pali Text Society
The Society was founded in 1881 by T.W. Rhys Davids “to foster and promote the study of Pāli texts”. It publishes Pāli texts in roman characters, translations in English and ancillary works including dictionaries, a concordance, books for students of Pāli and a journal. Most of the classical texts and commentaries have now been edited and many works translated into English.

Mandala Magazine | Online Features
Mandala Publications is the official publication of the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT).

Numen – the official journal of the International Association for the History of Religions (IAHR) – is one of the world’s leading journals devoted to the academic study of religions. It covers the full breadth of current international scholarship in the field, featuring articles on contemporary religious phenomena as well as on historical themes, theoretical contributions besides more empirically oriented studies.

Pacific World: Journal of Institute of Buddhist Studies
Pacific World is an annual journal in English devoted to the dissemination of historical, textual, critical and interpretive articles on Buddhism generally and Shinshu Buddhism particularly to both academic and lay readerships.

An international open-access, online-only journal founded in 2010. Over the last decade, it has published 98 articles on Buddhism.

Religious Studies in Japan
Religious Studies in Japan is an online peer-reviewed journal edited and published by the Japanese Association for Religious Studies. This journal aims to share scholarly research by members of the Japanese Association for Religious Studies with international colleagues, and to promote discussion between scholars in Japan and abroad

Tibet Journal
JSTOR access to Tibet Journal via MCL

Tricycle: The Buddhist Review
The leading independent journal of Buddhism in the West.

Udaya, Journal of Khmer Studies
Udaya is a word of Sanskrit origin used in Khmer since ancient times. Pronounced “outey” in Khmer, it means “rising sun,” and by extension “dawn” or “rebirth.” The journal provides a forum and a vehicle for renewal in Khmer Studies –a renewal which cannot be entirely isolated from the political, social and economic aspects of a larger transformation ongoing in Cambodia and with respect to Cambodia.

Google Arts & Culture 

Curated image galleries and visual stories created by the Google Cultural Institute.

Buddhism and its Artistic Expression: The Indian Museum, Kolkata organized an exquisite exhibition titled Indian Buddhist Art, showcasing masterpieces of Buddhist Art from different parts of Indian sub-continent. The exhibition comprises 91 objects from Indian sub-continent which displays a visual expression of stories associated with the life of the Buddha, spread of the religion, Buddhism and development of the art which is known as Buddhist Art.

Honoring Nepal: On April 25, 2015, massive earthquakes caused high death tolls, injuries, and widespread destruction. This exhibition honors Nepal’s distinct contributions to art, culture, and history.

Nalanda: from Mound to Monument (1917-1927): Image gallery and 360 degree tours of Nalanda, from the start of archaeological work 100 years ago to today.

Sarnath: Turning the Wheel of Law: Photo gallery and excavation history of Sarnath.

Tibet: Made by Tibetans: Contemporary artists from Tibet.

Tibetan Dwellings: Settlement and housing in Tibet.

Travel’s of Xuanzang (629-645 CE): Ten thousand miles along the Silk Road and Indian subcontinent.

Xuanzang’s Travels in Bihar (637-642 CE): Xuanzang in the footsteps of the Buddha.